How Do Computers Talk to Each Other? (Techni-Kids Book Series)

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Learn More. To give you a better overall experience, we want to provide relevant ads that are more useful to you. For example, when you search for a film, we use your search information and location to show the most relevant cinemas near you. We also use this information to show you ads for similar films you may like in the future. Decoupage can involve adding multiple copies of the same image, cut and layered to add apparent depth. The picture is often coated with varnish or some other sealant for protection.

In the early part of the 20th century, decoupage, like many other art methods, began experimenting with a less realistic and more abstract style. There are many varieties on the traditional technique involving purpose made 'glue' requiring fewer layers often 5 or 20, depending on the amount of paper involved.

Cutouts are also applied under glass or raised to give a three-dimensional appearance according to the desire of the decouper.

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Currently decoupage is a popular handicraft. Many advanced techniques were developed during this time, and items could take up to a year to complete due to the many coats and sandings applied. In fact the majority of decoupage enthusiasts attribute the beginning of decoupage to 17th century Venice.

However it was known before this time in Asia. The most likely origin of decoupage is thought to be East Siberian funerary art. Nomadic tribes would use cut out felts to decorate the tombs of their deceased.

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From Siberia, the practice came to China , and by the 12th century, cut out paper was being used to decorate lanterns, windows, boxes and other objects. In the 17th century, Italy , especially in Venice , was at the forefront of trade with the Far East and it is generally thought that it is through these trade links that the cut out paper decorations made their way into Europe. Collage made from photographs, or parts of photographs, is called photomontage.

Photomontage is the process and result of making a composite photograph by cutting and joining a number of other photographs. The composite picture was sometimes photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seamless photographic print. The same method is accomplished today using image-editing software. The technique is referred to by professionals as compositing.

Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing? In addition, the piece was used in posters for the exhibit. Many artists have created derivative works of Hamilton's collage. Helm made a year interpretation. Other methods for combining pictures are also called photomontage, such as Victorian "combination printing", the printing from more than one negative on a single piece of printing paper e. Rejlander , , front-projection and computer montage techniques. Much as a collage is composed of multiple facets, artists also combine montage techniques.

Bearden fixed the imagery with an emulsion that he then applied with handroller.

deraweerirog.tk Subsequently, he enlarged the collages photographically. The 19th century tradition of physically joining multiple images into a composite and photographing the results prevailed in press photography and offset lithography until the widespread use of digital image editing. Contemporary photo editors in magazines now create "paste-ups" digitally.

Creating a photomontage has, for the most part, become easier with the advent of computer software such as Adobe Photoshop , Pixel image editor, and GIMP. These programs make the changes digitally, allowing for faster workflow and more precise results. They also mitigate mistakes by allowing the artist to "undo" errors. Yet some artists are pushing the boundaries of digital image editing to create extremely time-intensive compositions that rival the demands of the traditional arts.

The current trend is to create pictures that combine painting, theatre, illustration and graphics in a seamless photographic whole. Digital collage is the technique of using computer tools in collage creation to encourage chance associations of disparate visual elements and the subsequent transformation of the visual results through the use of electronic media. It is commonly used in the creation of digital art.

A 3D collage is the art of putting altogether three-dimensional objects such as rocks, beads, buttons, coins, or even soil to form a new whole or a new object. Examples can include houses, bead circles, etc. It is the art of putting together or assembling of small pieces of paper, tiles, marble, stones, etc. They are often found in cathedrals, churches, temples as a spiritual significance of interior design.

Small pieces, normally roughly quadratic, of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae, diminutive tessellae , are used to create a pattern or picture. The term "eCollage" electronic Collage can be used for a collage created by using computer tools. Pablo Picasso , Compotier avec fruits, violon et verre, Though Le Corbusier and other architects used techniques that are akin to collage, collage as a theoretical concept only became widely discussed after the publication of Collage City by Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter.

Rowe and Koetter were not, however, championing collage in the pictorial sense, much less seeking the types of disruptions of meaning that occur with collage. Instead, they were looking to challenge the uniformity of Modernism and saw collage with its non-linear notion of history as a means to reinvigorate design practice.

Not only does historical urban fabric have its place, but in studying it, designers were, so it was hoped, able to get a sense of how better to operate. Rowe was a member of the so-called Texas Rangers , a group of architects who taught at the University of Texas for a while. Whereas for Rowe, collage was more a metaphor than an actual practice, Hoesli actively made collages as part of his design process.

He was close to Robert Slutzky, a New York-based artist, and frequently introduced the question of collage and disruption in his studio work. The concept of collage has crossed the boundaries of visual arts.


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In music , with the advances on recording technology, avant-garde artists started experimenting with cutting and pasting since the middle of the twentieth century. In the s, George Martin created collages of recordings while producing the records of The Beatles. In pop artist Peter Blake made the collage for the cover of the Beatles seminal album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. In the s and s, the likes of Christian Marclay and the group Negativland reappropriated old audio in new ways.

By the s and s, with the popularity of the sampler , it became apparent that " musical collages " had become the norm for popular music , especially in rap , hip-hop and electronic music. Miller aka DJ Spooky 's work pushed the work of sampling into a museum and gallery context as an art practice that combined DJ culture's obsession with archival materials as sound sources on his album Songs of a Dead Dreamer and in his books Rhythm Science and Sound Unbound MIT Press. In his books, "mash-up" and collage based mixes of authors, artists, and musicians such as Antonin Artaud , James Joyce , William S.

Burroughs , and Raymond Scott were featured as part of a what he called "literature of sound. Collage is commonly used as a technique in Children's picture book illustration.

Eric Carle is a prominent example, using vividly colored hand-textured papers cut to shape and layered together, sometimes embellished with crayon or other marks. See image at The Very Hungry Caterpillar. Collage is sometimes used alone or in combination with other techniques in artists' books , especially in one-off unique books rather than as reproduced images in published books. Collage novels are books with images selected from other publications and collaged together following a theme or narrative.

The bible of discordianism , the Principia Discordia , is described by its author as a literary collage. A collage in literary terms may also refer to a layering of ideas or images. Collage is utilized in fashion design in the sketching process, as part of mixed media illustrations, where drawings together with diverse materials such as paper, photographs, yarns or fabric bring ideas into designs.

Collage film can also refer to the physical collaging of materials onto filmstrips. Canadian Film maker, Arthur Lipsett , was especially renown for his collage films, many of which were made from the cutting room floors of the National Film Board studios. The use of CGI , or computer-generated imagery , can be considered a form of collage, especially when animated graphics are layered over traditional film footage.

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In this case, the effects serve to enhance clarity, while adding a surreal aspect to an otherwise realistic film. When collage uses existing works, the result is what some copyright scholars call a derivative work. The collage thus has a copyright separate from any copyrights pertaining to the original incorporated works. Due to redefined and reinterpreted copyright laws, and increased financial interests, some forms of collage art are significantly restricted. For example, in the area of sound collage such as hip hop music , some court rulings effectively have eliminated the de minimis doctrine as a defense to copyright infringement , thus shifting collage practice away from non-permissive uses relying on fair use or de minimis protections, and toward licensing.

The copyright status of visual works is less troubled, although still ambiguous. For instance, some visual collage artists have argued that the first-sale doctrine protects their work.